Formation of the life cycle: collectivists and rogues come to an agreement

Scientists from New Zealand for five years were an evolutionary experiment, simulating the selection of groups of cells. In these cell teams were divided into two groups of cells: somatic and generative. And they both had to operate not only selfishly, how many for the benefit of the whole team. It turned out that this is possible. In this case the cells that were previously deceivers and enjoyed the fruits of collective investments, then turned to those who perform the function of reproduction whole team. To make this happen, to pair mutation “collectivism” and gene “selfishness.”

When you need a simple example to illustrate how society functions collectivists in which wormed deceivers immediately recall the experiments of Paul Rainey (Paul B. Rainey) from Massey University (Auckland, New Zealand); cm. Microbiologists say: multicellularity - a complete scam (”Elements”, 06.04.2007). Rainey was working with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, which is ideal for studying simple groups. In favorable conditions, bacteria cells multiply rapidly and spend the entire oxidation of organics dissolved oxygen. Therefore, the most advantageous position for the cells - on the surface of the liquid medium. To stay on the surface, the cells begin to produce a special glue that holds them together and allows you to create a floating colony. But the production of glue - an expensive process, so these cells proliferate slowly. When in this environment appears deceiver, not producing glue, and certainly appears so, he immediately gets the advantage. After all, he lives in conditions of oxygen through the rest of the workers of the colony, and their resources are spent only on reproduction. As a result, after a few generations the offspring cheaters outnumber adhesive manufacturers, and collectivists are no longer possible to keep the colony afloat; it sinks and dies. And the whole cycle with prosperity collectivists, the advent of the cheaters and their proliferation begins anew.

Discussing his experiment, Rainey and his colleagues suggested that the creation on this basis of a multicellular organism in which collectivists will be relatively stable, it is necessary to multiply at a rate not less than the cheaters. But at the same time and seducers shall limit their reproductive capabilities - otherwise who exalt them in the ecological paradise? For this selection should work so that the deceivers and collectivists distributed among themselves the functions of reproduction and retention of its ecological space.

11 November 2014

McDonald’s reveals the secrets of his food to return buyer
“Chip” aliens was only the imprint of ancient plants

Social animal, including humans, often have to make concerted efforts and take collective decisions.
• Oxygen in the ocean appeared earlier than in the atmosphere »»»
Sometime Wednesday planet was completely anoxic. Everything changed with the Oxygen Catastrophe, when the atmosphere saturated with this gas first photosynthetic organisms - archaea.
• Beginning of the space race for the right to establish air on Mars »»»
Space race for the colonization of Mars - a great chance for engineers to compete in originality and efficiency ideas.
• Biologists have refuted the myth of the brilliant ravens »»»
Biologists have shown that corvids are not as smart as one might think.
• Man "tunes" the perception of the surrounding space, indulging the desires of short-term »»»
Psychologists of New York and Cornell University (both - USA) experimentally proved that the person “tunes” the perception of the surrounding space, guided by short-term desires.